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Ordinary Carbon Steel

Ordinary carbon steel only contains carbon as the main element in influence steel mechanical properties, in fact limited amount of manganese and silicon also exist in carbon steel plate and pipe products, and as the raw material contains elements of small quantities, such as nickel, chromium, aluminium, molybdenum and copper, and the bad impurities phosphorous and sulphur.

Mild Steel

Mild Steel is mostly used for steel structural purpose, it is a special steel type which is not included in most steel standard. One significant difference is carbon content could reach up to 0.3%. Mild steel plate and pipe products show very good weldability and proper cold bending properties, it is always used in common projects.

Carbon-Manganese Steels

Carbon steel contains higher level of manganese (1.0%-1.8%) is defined as Carbon Manganese steel. Manganese element can improve steel strength and toughness and hardening depth.

Carbon Steel Boiler and Pressure Vessel Plate
Steel StandardCarbon steel Plate Grades
ASTM A285Grade AGrade BGrade C
ASTM A299Grade AGrade B 
ASTM A515Grade 60Grade 65Grade 70
ASTM A516Grade 60Grade 65Grade 70
ASTM A537Class 1Class 2Class 3
ASTM A662Grade AGrade BGrade C
ASTM A738Grade AGrade BGrade C
BS 1501:430161-360A/B161-430A/B223-490A/B
DIN 1629St37.0St44.0St52.0
  • ASTM A285: Covers carbon steel plates of low- and intermediate-tensile strengths which may be made by killed, semi-killed, capped, or rimmed steel. These plates are intended for fusion-welded pressure vessels.
  • ASTM A299: Manganese-silicon carbon steel plates for use in welded boilers and other pressure vessels.
  • ASTM A515: Carbon-silicon steel plates primarily for intermediate- and higher-temperature service in welded boilers and other pressure vessels.
  • ASTM A516: Carbon steel plates intended primarily for service in welded pressure vessels where improved notch toughness is important.
  • ASTM A537: Heat-treated carbon manganese-silicon steel plates intended for fusion welded pressure vessels and structures.
  • ASTM A662: Carbon-manganese-silicon steel plates intended primarily for service in welded pressure vessels where improved low temperature notch toughness is important.
  • ASTM A738: Heat-treated carbon-manganese-silicon steel plates intended for use in welded pressure vessels at moderate and lower temperature service.
  • BS 1501:430: British Standard specification for carbon and carbon manganese steel plates for pressure purposes
  • DIN 1629: Steel pipes for pressure and thermal purposes with specified room temperature properties – line pipes.
Carbon Steel Boiler and Heat Exchanger Tube
Steel StandardCarbon steel Plate Grades
ASTM A179A179
ASTM A106Grade AGrade BGrade C
ASTM A192A192
JIS G3461STB340STB410STB510
  • ASTM A179: Minimum-wall thickness, seamless cold-drawn low-carbon steel tubes for tubular heat exchangers, condensers, and similar heat transfer apparatus. Tubes shall be made by the seamless process and shall be cold drawn.
  • ASTM A106: Carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service. These pipes are suitable for welding, bending, flanging, and similar forming operations. Mechanical testing of the specimens shall include tensile, bending, flattening, hydrostatic and nondestructive electric tests.
  • ASTM A192: Specifications for minimum-wall-thickness, seamless carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes for high-pressure service.
  • ASTM A210: Minimum-wall-thickness, seamless medium-carbon steel, boiler tubes and boiler flues, including safe ends, arch and stay tubes, and superheater tubes.
  • JIS G3461: Carbon steel tube used for exchanger heat on inside and outside of the tube, such as water tubes, smoke tubes, superheater tubes, air preheater tubes, etc. of the boiler, and heat exchanger tubes, condenser tubes, catalyser tubes, etc. used in chemical and petroleum industries.
Alloy Steel

In the ordinary carbon steel based on the addition of an appropriate amount of one or more alloy elements and the composition of iron and carbon alloy. According to the different elements, and take appropriate processing technology, can get high strength, high toughness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, low temperature, high temperature, non-magnetic and other special properties. Alloy steels contain element listed below in a quantity equal to or greater than the percentage.

Al 0.10%, B 0.008%, Bi 0.10%, Cr 0.30%, Co 0.10%, Cu 0.40%, Mn 1.65%, Mo 0.06%, Pb 0.40%, Se 0.10%, Si 0.50%, Te 0.10%, Ti 0.05%, W 0.10%, V 0.10%, Zr 0.05%, Lanthanides (each) 0.05%, other specified elements (except C, S, P, N) 0.05%.

Low Alloy High Strength Steels

Low alloy high strength steel, its alloy element content is low, the impurity content is relatively high, and generally it is used with no heat treatment. Alloy steel can be divided into low alloy steel (ω_M <= 5%), medium alloy steel (ω_M = 5% ~ 10%), high alloy steel (ω_M> 10%).

High alloy steel

High alloy steel can be divided into alloy structural steel, alloy tool steel, it is featured with higher alloy content and lower impurity content, usually use heat treatment to improve steel strength and hardness.

Alloy Steel Boiler and Pressure Vessel Plate
Steel StandardAlloy Steel Plate Grades
ASTM A204Grade AGrade BGrade C
ASTM A302Grade AGrade BGrade CGrade D 
ASTM A387Gr.2Gr.12Gr.11Gr.22Gr.22L
ASTM A737Grade AGrade BGrade C
DIN 1715515Mo313CrMo4-417Mn410CrMo9-1019Mn6
JIS G3103SB410SB450SB480SB450MSB480M
JIS G3115Spv235SPV315SPV355SPV410SPV450
JIS G3124SEV245SEV295SEV345  
NFA 36-205E420RA37CPA48CPA 42 CP
  • ASTM A204: Molybdenum alloy steel plates, intended particularly for welded boilers and other pressure vessels.
  • ASTM A302: Manganese-molybdenum and manganese-molybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates intended particularly for welded boilers and other pressure vessels.
  • ASTM A387: Chromium-molybdenum alloy steel plates for welded boilers and pressure vessels designed for elevated temperature service.
  • ASTM A737: High-strength low-alloy steel plates for service in welded pressure vessels and piping components.
  • DIN 17155: Outdated German specification for pressure vessel steel.
  • En10028-2: European standard that specifies requirements for flat products for pressure equipment made of weldable nonalloy and alloy steels with elevated temperature properties as specified.
  • JIS G3103: Carbon steel and molybdenum alloy steel plates for boilers and other pressure vessels.
  • JIS G3119: Manganese-molybdenum and manganese-molybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates for boilers and pressure vessels.
  • JIS G3124: High strength steel plates to be used for boilers and pressure vessels for intermediate and moderate temperature services.
  • NFA 36-205: Material used to for manufacturing boilers, pressure vessels and pipes transporting hot liquids.
Alloy Steel Boiler and Heat Exchanger Tube
Steel StandardAlloy steel Tube Grades
ASTM A335 P1 P2 P5 P9 P11
P12 P22 P23 P91 P92
DIN 17175 St35.8 St45.8 15Mo3 13CrMo44 10CrMo910
EN10216-2 P195GH P235GH P265GH 16Mo3 14MoV6-3
13CrMo4-5 10CrMo9-10
JIS G3462 STBA 12 STBA 13 STBA 20 STBA 22 STBA 23
  • ASTM A335: Nominal wall and minimum wall seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe intended for high-temperature service.
  • DIN 17175: Seamless steel pipes are used in boiler installations, high-pressure pipelines and tank construction and special machinery for both high temperature and high-pressure devices.
  • EN10216-2: Seamless steel tubes for pressure purposes - Technical delivery conditions Part 2: Non-alloy and alloy steel tubes with specified elevated temperature properties.
  • JIS G3462: Alloy steel tubes, hereinafter referred to as the "tubes". used for exchanging heat on the inside and outside of the tube, such as water tubes, smoke tubes, superherater tubes, air preheater tubes, etc
Stainless Steel Types

Stainless steel is mainly used when high corrosion and oxidation resistance is required, alloy steel product developed with over 12% of chromium improved growth of chemical processing and power generating industries, including pressure vessel equipments, boilers, cylinders, etc. Stainless steel has developed into 3 common types: Austenitic, Martensitic, Ferritic, there are also special types: duplex, precipitation hardening and super alloys.

Austenitic steel

Austenitic steel is featured with high corrosion resistant for its high chromium and nickel content in stainless steel types, well known as iron-chromium-nickel steel which has fine mechanical properties(it can be hardened by cold-working) and no magnetic.

Martensitic steel

Martensitic steel contains only chromium element, no nickel, it is magnetic and can be hardened by heat treating. It is widely used for high hardness, strength and corrosion resistance requirements.

Ferritic steel

Ferritic steel is featured with high resistant to stress corronsion cracking, it is a kind of magnetic steel contained with only chromium and no nickel element, usually it is annealed to be cold worked an softened, while it can’t be hardened by heat treatment.

Stainless Steel Plate Grades
Steel StandardStainless Steel Plate Grades
ASTM A240304304L316316L304H316H
  • ASTM A240: Covers chromium, chromium-nickel, and chromium-manganese-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for pressure vessels and for general applications including architectural, building, construction, and aesthetic applications.
Stainless steel Tube Grades
Steel StandardCarbon steel Plate Grades
ASTM A213T2T5T9T11T12T22
ASTM A269TP304TP304LTP316TP316LTP321
ASTM A312TP304TP304HTP304LTP310STP316TP316L
  • ASTM A213: Covers seamless ferritic and austenitic steel boiler, superheater, and heat-exchanger tubes, designated Grades T5, TP304, etc.
  • ASTM A269: Covers grades of nominal-wall-thickness, stainless steel tubing for general corrosion-resisting and low- or high-temperature service.
  • ASTM A312: Seamless, straight-seam welded, and heavily cold worked welded austenitic stainless steel pipe intended for high-temperature and general corrosive service.
  • JIS G3463: Japanese Industrial Standard specifies the stainless steel tubes (hereafter referred to as "tubes") used for exchanging heat on the inside and outside of the tube, such as superheater tubes of boilers, and heat exchanger tubs, condenser tube, However, it is not applicable to the heating furnace tube.
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